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Pharmacognosy is derived from two Greek words, Pharmakon & Gnosis
• Pharmakon – means ‘drug’.
• Gnosis – means ‘knowledge’.
• In brief, Pharmacognosy means ‘knowledge of drugs’.
It is a study of drugs that originate in the plant & animal kingdoms. Pharmacognosy is a branch of pharmacy which deals with the basic resources of medicines from nature (plant & animal) and their uses as medicaments from ancient time to present day.
Its scope involves the study of the physical, chemical,, drug substances, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources. Research problems in pharmacognosy involves studies in the areas of microbial chemistry, biotransformation, biosynthesis and other sciences of biology and chemistry.
Pharmacology is the science that deals with the study of drugs and their interaction with the living systems and also includes about study of the therapeutic value and/or potential toxicity of chemical agents on biological systems. It aims every aspect of the mechanisms for the chemical actions of both traditional and novel therapeutic agents.
Two important and interrelated areas are: pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.
- Pharmacodynamics (what drug does with the body) are the study of the molecular, biochemical, and physiological effects of drugs on cellular systems and their mechanisms of action.
- Pharmacokinetics (what body does with the drug) deals with the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs.
Pharmaceutical technology is the application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy, pharmacology, and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes strategies, methods, and instrumentation in the production, planning, compounding, administering, bundling, and putting away of medications and different arrangements utilized in indicative and determinative systems and in the treatment of patients.
The use of organism or enzymes for the large-scale production of useful substances ranging from not only food products, agricultural products and environmental science but also in the area of medicinal compounds, vaccines and diagnostics’.
In fact, drug biotechnology is one of the key ventures today. Recombinant DNA advances have entered drug revelation and all fields in the turn of events and assembling of helpful proteins and nucleotides. Biotechnology significantly affects drug industry since late advances in recombinant protein science, antibody creation, and diagnostics have and will change the treatment ideal models for some genuine and neglected infections.
The science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problems
Divisions of Pharmacovigilance
• Evaluate Monitor Analyze Action Communicate
• Evaluate the safety of drug and therapeutic biologic products
• Analyze safety signals
• Recommend regulatory actions
• Communicate relevant safety information.
Pharmaceutics is the area of study concerned with the formulation, manufacturing stability and effectiveness of pharmaceutical dosage form.. In this we will study how the drugs are administered in the body to be effective. Drugs are rarely used alone. They are used as a part of a formulation with other non-drug substances. These non-drug substances or additives serve specific function. The drugs presented in the dosage form are given in a specific quantity i.e. dose for a specific period. These dosage forms are available in various forms as required for a specific disease condition. Packaging of dosage form is another important aspect as the dosage form should not degrade during storage. A good packaging is necessary to protect the drug component from any type of deterioration till it reaches the consumer.
Toxicology is defined as the study of science that deals with poisons. By convention, toxicology also includes the study of dangerous effects caused by physical phenomena, such as radiation of various kinds, noise, and so on. In practice, many complications exist beyond these simple definitions, both in bringing more precise definition to the meaning of poison and to the measurement of toxic effects. Broader definitions of toxicology, such as “ the study of the properties, detection , occurrence, effects, and regulation of toxic substances, ”
Advanced drug delivery system is also called as Novel drug delivery system which increases drug potency, controls drug release to give a sustained therapeutic effect, and provides higher safety then finally it aims a drug specifically to the desired tissue.
Any drug delivery system may include:
Drug Delivery systems are introduced to deliver a required amount of drugs effectively to appropriate target sites and to maintain the required drug levels and it includes:
• Needle-free technology.
• Microsphere drug delivery.
• Poorly soluble drug formulation.
• Jet injectors for vaccine delivery.
• Site or receptor-specific delivery.
• Self-emulsifying drug delivery system
• Particle size reduction IV-IV study
Drug discovery is a process where a new drug or medications are discovered and helps to identify a compound therapeutically useful in curing and treating disease. It incorporate a wide range of scientific divisions, including biology, chemistry, and pharmacology.
This process connects with the identification of candidates, synthesis, characterization, validation, optimization, screening, and assays for therapeutic efficacy.
The three major phases are:
• Packaging Development
Research and development has customarily been and will keep on being significant for the future accomplishment of research based pharma organizations. The pharmaceutical industry has now entered a span of significant uncertainty and transition characterized by higher R&D costs, depleted pipelines and financial restriction to perform imaginative research. The worldwide credit crunch compounds this with an ever increasing number of cutbacks and examination spending cuts; yet significant emergency can some of the time produce significant freedoms. New plans of action, for example, open advancement may assist with addressing the purported drug 'usefulness oddity' by means of the sharing of hazard, cost and licensed innovation through R&D key collusions including all sort of trend-setters, like drug, biotechnology, scholastic medication disclosure focuses and clinical exploration associations.
Biotherapy is also called as Biological Therapy or Immunotherapy. It is a type of treatment that utilizes the substances made from living organisms like virus, gene, or a protein to treat a disease. Those substances may found naturally in the body or may be made in the laboratory.
Common biological agents used are:
• Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors
Radiopharmaceuticals are otherwise called restorative radio mixtures are novel therapeutic plans that contain radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are bound to natural atoms ready to target explicit organs, tissues, or cells inside the human body .The radioactive drugs can be used in the diagnosis and, for the therapy of diseases.
Radiopharmaceuticals emit radiation themselves, which is different from contrast media which alter or absorb external electromagnetism or ultrasound .Radio pharmacology is the part of pharmacology that represents considerable authority in these specialists. Radiopharmaceuticals can be divided into four categories:
• Radiopharmaceutical preparation
• Radionuclide generator
• Radiopharmaceutical precursor
• Kit for radiopharmaceutical preparation
Effective supply management has the potential to make a strong contribution to the reliable availability of essential medicines, which are a crucial part of the delivery of high quality health care services. Because prescriptions are expensive and helpless administration so frequently brings about squander, great stockpile the executives is additionally critical to the expense adequacy of giving medications to individuals.
The entire pharmaceutical management cycle lays on a strategy and lawful structure that builds up and upholds the public obligation to providing fundamental prescriptions. The eight major sections of:
■ Storage management
■ Inventory management and stock control
■ Distribution of stock from the health facility storeroom
■ Good dispensing practices
■ Rational prescription and use of medicines
■ Disposal of expired, damaged, or obsolete item
■ Training and performance improvement of supply staff
■ Supervision of supply management
Therapeutic uses a variety of drug carrier systems have powerful impact on the treatment and potential cure of many chronic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV infection, and drug addiction. Scientific efforts which are in the above are of a multidisciplinary nature involving the physical, medical, biological, pharmaceutical, and engineering fields, and biomedical materials. With the vast growth in the numbers of papers and the tendency to fragmentize science, it becomes significantly difficult to keep abreast of the literature, and even more difficult to sort out and to evaluate the priority and sometimes the reliability of the data, especially in cases where proprietary considerations are involved. Abstracts and non-critical articles often do not provide a enough reliable basis for the proper assessment of a given field without having the additional perusal of the original literature.